ICSE Class 10 Syllabus for 2024
Syllabus

ICSE Class 10 Syllabus for 2024

by AlmondBooks Support on Feb 17, 2023

ICSE Class 10 Syllabus Subjects
English class 10 2024 Maths class 10 2024
History and Civics class 10 2024 Geography class 9 2024
Home Science class 10 2024 Physics class 10 2024
Biology class 10 2024 Chemistry class 10 2024
Economics class 10 2024 Commercial Studies class 10 2024
Environmental Applications class 10 2024 Physical Education class 10 2024

English Literature 2

Topics Contents
1. Merchant of Venice- William Shakespeare
  • Act III
  • Act IV
  • Act V
2. Treasure Chest
  • A Collection of ICSE short stories and poems
3. Poetry
  • Daffodils – William Wordsworth
  • I know why the Caged Bird Sings – Maya Angelou
  • The Patriot – Oscar Wilde
  • Abu Ben Adhem – Leigh Hunt
  • Nine Gold Medals – David Roth
4. Short Stories(Prose)
  • An Angel in Disguise – T.S. Arthur
  • The Little March Girl – Hans Christian Andersen
  • The Blue Bead – Norah Burke
  • My Greatest Olympic Prize – Jesse Owens
  • All Summer in a Day - Ray Douglas Bradbury

 

Mathematics

icse maths study guide 2024
Topics Contents
1. Commercial Mathematics
  • Goods and Service Tax (GST)
    - Computation of tax including problems involving discounts, list-price, profit, loss, basic/cost price including inverse cases. Candidates are also expected to find price paid by the consumer after paying State Goods and Service Tax (SGST) and Central Goods and Service Tax (CGST) - the different rates as in vogue on different types of items will be provided. Problems based on corresponding inverse cases are also included.
  • Banking
    - Recurring Deposit Accounts: computation of interest and maturity value using the formula
  • Share and Dividends
    - Face/Nominal Value, Market Value, Dividend, Rate of Dividend, Premium.
    - Income = number of shares x rate of dividend x FV.
2. Algebra
  • Linear Inequations
  • Quadratic Equations in one variable
  • Ratio and Proportion
  • Factorisation of Polynomials
  • Matrices
  • Arithmetic Progression
  • Co-ordinate Geometry  
3. Geometry
  • Similarity
  • Loci
  • Circles
  • Cyclic Properties
  • Tangent and Secant Properties
4. Mensuration
  • Area and Volume of Solids - Cylinder, Cone and Sphere
5. Trigonometry
  • Using Identities to prove simple algebraic trigonometric expressions
  • Height and Distances:Solving 2-D problems involving angles of elevation and depression using trigonometric tables
6. Statistics
  • Basic Concepts
  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • Ogive
  • Histograms
7. Probability
  • Random Experiments
  • Sample space
  • Events
  • Definition of Probability
  • Simple problems on single events

Geography

Topics Contents
1. Map Work
  • Interpretation of Topographical Maps
    • Locating features with the help of a four figure gird reference
    • Definition of contour and contour interval. Identification of landforms marked by contours (steep slope, gentle slope, hill), triangulated height, spot height, benchmark, relative height/ depth
    • Interpretation of colour tints and conventional symbols used on a topographical survey of India map.
    • Identification and definition of types of scale given on the map. Measuring direct distance and calculating area using the scale given therein
    • Marking directions between different locations, using eight cardinal points.
    • Identify: Site of prominent villages and/or towns, types of land use / land cover and means of communication with the help of the index given at the bottom of the sheet.
    • Identification of drainage (direction of flow, left bank and right bank) and patterns (Dendritic, Trellis, and Radial); nature of streams. Settlement patterns (Scattered and Compact).
    • Identification of natural and man-made features.
  • Geographic grid
  • Rotation and Revolution
2. Map of India
  • On an outline map of India, candidates will be required to locate, mark and name the following:
  • Mountains, Peaks and Plateaus: Himalayas, Karakoram, Aravali, Vindhyas, Satpura, Western and Eastern Ghats, Nilgiris, Mount Godwin Austin (K2), Mount Kanchenjunga. Deccan Plateau, Chota Nagpur Plateau.
  • Plains: Gangetic Plains and Coastal plains – (Konkan, Malabar, Coromandel, Northern Circars)
  • Desert: Thar (The Great Indian Desert)
  • Rivers: Indus, Jhelum, Satluj, Ganga, Yamuna, Kosi, Chambal, Betwa, Damodar, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauveri, Tungabhadra.
  • Water Bodies: Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Khambhat, Andaman Sea, Chilka Lake, Wular Lake.
  • Passes: Karakoram, Nathu-La Passes.
  • Latitude and Longitudes: Tropic of Cancer, Standard Meridian (82° 30’E).
  • Direction of Winds: Southwest Monsoons (Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal Branches), Northeast Monsoons.
  • Distribution of Minerals: Oil - Mumbai High (Offshore Oil Field); Iron – Singhbhum, Coal – Jharia.
  • Soil Distribution – Alluvial, Black and Red Soil
  • Cities - Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Kochi, Prayagraj/ Allahabad.
  • Population - Distribution of Population (Dense and sparse).
3. Location,Extent and Physical Features
  • Position and Extent of India. (through Map only).
  • The physical features of India – mountains, plateaus, plains and rivers. (through Map only).
4. Climate
  • Distribution of Temperature, Rainfall, winds in Summer and Winter and factors affecting the climate of the area. Monsoon and its mechanism. Seasons: March to May – Summer; June to September – Monsoon; October to November - Retreating Monsoon. December to February – Winter.
5. Soil Resources
  • Types of soil (alluvial, black, red and laterite) distribution, composition and characteristics such as colour, texture, minerals and crops associated.
  • Soil Erosion – causes, prevention and conservation.
6. Natural Vegetation
  • Importance of forests.
  • Types of vegetation (tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, tropical desert, littoral and mountain), distribution and correlation with their environment.
  • Forest conservation.
7. Water Resources
  • Sources (Surface water and ground water).
  • Need for conservation and conservation practices (Rainwater harvesting and its importance).
  • Irrigation: Importance and methods.
8. Mineral and Energy Resources
  • Iron ore, Manganese, Copper – uses and their distribution.
  • Conventional Sources: Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas (distribution, advantages and disadvantages).
  • Hydel power (Bhakra Nangal Dam and Hirakud).
  • Non-conventional Sources: Solar, wind, nuclear and biogas (important areas and advantages).
9. Agriculture
  • Indian Agriculture – importance, problems and reforms.
  • Types of farming in India: subsistence and commercial: intensive, extensive, plantation and mixed.
  • Agricultural seasons (rabi, kharif, zayad).
  • Climatic conditions, soil requirements, methods of cultivation, processing and distribution of the following crops:
    • rice, wheat and pulses.
    • sugarcane, oilseeds (groundnut and, mustard).
    • cotton, jute, and tea.
10. Manufacturing Industries
  • Importance and classification
  • Agro based Industry - Sugar, Textile (Cotton and Silk).
  • Mineral based Industry – Iron & Steel (TATA STEEL Rourkela) Petro Chemical and Electronics
11. Transport
  • Importance and Modes – Roadways, Railways, Airways and Waterways –- Advantages and disadvantages.
12. Waste Management
  • Need for waste management
  • Methods of Safe Disposal-segregation, dumping and composting. 
  • Need and methods for reducing, reusing and recycling waste.

History and Civics

Section A: Civics
Topics Contents
1.The Union Legislature
  • Definition of a federal setup
    • Lok Sabha: term, composition, qualifications for membership. Parliamentary procedures: a brief idea of sessions, quorum, question hour, adjournment and no-confidence motion. Speaker – election and any four functions.
    • Rajya Sabha – composition, qualifications for membership, election, term, Presiding Officer.
  • Powers and functions of Union Parliament – (legislative, financial, amendment of the Constitution, control over executive). Exclusive powers of the two Houses
2. The Union Executive
  • The President
    • Qualifications for election, composition of Electoral College, reason for indirect election, term of office, procedure for impeachment.
    • Powers: executive, legislative, discretionary and emergency (only the three types of emergencies and circumstances leading to proclamation of these emergencies).
  • The Vice-President
    • Qualifications for election, term of office and powers
  • Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
    • Appointment, formation of Council of Ministers, three categories of the Council of Ministers, tenure, functions - policy making, administrative and legislative. Position and powers of the Prime Minister (with reference to the President, the Cabinet, the Parliament and role as the Leader of the Nation),
    • Collective and individual responsibility of the members of the Cabinet. Distinction between the Council of Ministers and the Cabinet.
3.The Judiciary
  • The Supreme Court:
    • Composition, qualifications of judges, appointment, independence of judiciary from the control of executive and legislature; Jurisdiction and functions: Original, Appellate, Advisory, Revisory, Judicial Review and Court of Record. Enforcement of Fundamental Rights and Writs.
  • The High Courts:
    • Composition, qualifications of judges, appointment; Jurisdiction and functions: Original and Appellate.
  • Subordinate Courts:
    • Distinction between Court of the District Judge and Sessions Court.
    • Lok Adalats: meaning and advantages.
Section B: History
Topics Contents
1. The Indian National Movement (1857-1917)
  • The First War of Independence, 1857
    • Only the causes (political, socio-religious, economic and military) and consequences (only end of the Company’s Rule and changes introduced in administration). The events, however, need to be mentioned in order to maintain continuity and for a more comprehensive understanding.
  • Factors leading to the growth of Nationalism
    • repressive policies of Lord Lytton and Ilbert Bill Controversy, socio-religious reform movements (any two contributions of Raja Rammohan Roy and Jyotiba Phule) and role of the Press.
    • Foundation of the Indian National Congress - The year of formation and its founder - the first two sessions and their Presidents should be mentioned. Immediate objectives of the Indian National Congress.
  • First Phase of the Indian National Movement (1885-1907)
    • methods of struggle of the Early Nationalists. Any two contributions of Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee and Gopal Krishna Gokhale
    • Second Phase of the Indian National Movement (1905-1916) - Brief mention of the causes of the Partition of Bengal – Lord Curzon’s view and the view of the Nationalists. Objectives and methods of struggle of the Assertive Nationalists. Any two contributions of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai. The difference between the objectives and methods of the Assertive and early Nationalists.
    • The Muslim League: Year of formation, the first session and the name of the President. The objectives of the Muslim League.
    • Brief mention of the significance of the Lucknow Pact - 1916.
2. Mass Phase of the National Movement (1915- 1947)
  • Mahatma Gandhi - Non-Cooperation Movement : causes (Khilafat Movement, Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy), programme and suspension – Chauri Chaura incident and impact of the Movement; the Civil Disobedience Movement: causes (reaction to the Simon Commission, Declaration of Poorna Swaraj at the Lahore Session of 1929), Dandi March, programme and impact of the Movement, Gandhi-Irwin Pact and the Second Round Table Conference; the Quit India Movement: causes (failure of the Cripps Mission, Japanese threat), Quit India Resolution and the significance of the Movement.
  • Forward Bloc (objectives) and INA (the name of the founder, objectives and any two achievements), Contributions of Subhas Chandra Bose.
  • Independence and Partition of India – Mountbatten Plan (clauses and its acceptance); and the Indian Independence Act of 1947 (clauses only).
3. The Contemporary World
  • The First World War
    • Causes (Nationalism and Imperialism, division of Europe and Sarajevo crisis) and Results (Treaty of Versailles, objectives of the League of Nations).
  • Rise of Dictatorships
    • Causes for the rise of Fascism in Italy and the rise of Nazism in Germany. Similarities between Mussolini’s Fascist and Hitler’s Nazi ideologies.
  • The Second World War
    • Causes (Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles, Rise of Fascism and Nazism, Japanese invasion of China, failure of League of Nations and Hitler’s invasion of Poland). Consequences (brief mention of defeat of Axis Powers, formation of the United Nations and Cold War between the two power blocs).
  • United Nations
    • The objectives of the U.N.
      • The composition and any four functions of the General Assembly, the Security Council, and the International Court of Justice.
    • Major agencies of the United Nations: UNICEF, WHO and UNESCO - any four functions only
  • Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
    • Brief meaning; objectives; Names of the architects of NAM (Nehru, Nasser and Tito).

Physics

icse physics study guide notes question bank
Topics Contents
1. Force, Work, Power and Energy
  • Turning forces concept; moment of a force; forces in equilibrium; centre of gravity; [discussions using simple examples and simple numerical problems].
  • Elementary introduction of translational and rotational motions; moment (turning effect) of a force, also called torque and its cgs and SI units; common examples - door, steering wheel, bicycle pedal, etc.; clockwise and anticlockwise moments; conditions for a body to be in equilibrium ( translational and rotational); principle of moment and its verification using a metre rule suspended by two spring balances with slotted weights hanging from it; simple numerical problems; Centre of gravity (qualitative only) with examples of some regular bodies and irregular lamina.
  • Work, energy, power and their relation with force.
  • Definition of work. W FS = cosθ; special cases of θ = 00 , 900 . W= mgh. Definition of energy, energy as work done. Various units of work and energy and their relation with SI units. [erg, calorie, kW h and eV]. Definition of Power, P=W/t; SI and cgs units; other units, kilowatt (kW), megawatt (MW) and gigawatt (GW); and horsepower (1hp=746W) [Simple numerical problems on work, power and energy].
  • Different types of energy (e.g., chemical energy, Mechanical energy, heat energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy, sound energy, light energy).
  • Mechanical energy: potential energy U = mgh (derivation included) gravitational PE, examples; kinetic energy K= ½ mv2 (derivation included); forms of kinetic energy: translational, rotational and vibrational - only simple examples. [Numerical problems on K and U only in case of translational motion]; qualitative discussions of electrical, chemical, heat, nuclear, light and sound energy, conversion from one form to another; common examples.
  • Machines as force multipliers; load, effort, mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency; pulley systems showing the utility of each type of machine
  • Functions and uses of simple machines: Terms- effort E, load L, mechanical advantage MA = L/E, velocity ratio VR = VE/VL = dE / dL, input (Wi), output (Wo), efficiency (η), relation between η and MA, VR (derivation included); for all practical machines η <1; MA < VR.
  • Pulley system: single fixed, single movable, block and tackle; MA, VR and η in each case. [Pulleys using single tackle]
  • Principle of Conservation of energy. Statement of the principle of conservation of energy; theoretical verification that U + K = constant for a freely falling body. Application of this law to simple pendulum (qualitative only); [simple numerical problems].
2. Light
  • Refraction of light through a glass block and a triangular prism - qualitative treatment of simple applications such as real and apparent depth of objects in water and apparent bending of sticks in water. Applications of refraction of light.
  • Partial reflection and refraction due to change in medium. Laws of refraction; the effect on speed (V), wavelength (λ) and frequency (f) due to refraction of light; conditions for a light ray to pass undeviated. Values of speed of light (c) in vacuum, air, water and glass; refractive index µ = c/V, V = fλ. Values of µ for common substances such as water, glass and diamond; experimental verification; refraction through glass block; lateral displacement; multiple images in thick glass plate / mirror; [Diagrammatic representation not to be tested]; refraction through a glass prism, simple applications: real and apparent depth of objects in water; apparent bending of a stick under water. (Simple numerical problems and approximate ray diagrams required)
  • Total internal reflection: Critical angle; examples in triangular glass prisms; comparison with reflection from a plane mirror (qualitative only). Applications of total internal reflection.
  • Transmission of light from a denser medium (glass/water) to a rarer medium (air) at different angles of incidence; critical angle (C) µ = 1/sin C. Essential conditions for total internal reflection. Total internal reflection in a triangular glass prism; ray diagram, different cases - angles of prism (60º,60º,60º), (60º,30º,90º), (45º,45º,90º); use of right-angle prism to obtain δ = 90º and 180º (ray diagram); comparison of total internal reflection from a prism and reflection from a plane mirror.
  • Lenses (converging and diverging) including characteristics of the images formed (using ray diagrams only); magnifying glass; location of images using ray diagrams and thereby determining magnification.
  • Types of lenses (converging and diverging), convex and concave, action of a lens as a set of prisms; technical terms; centre of curvature, radii of curvature, principal axis, foci, focal plane and focal length; detailed study of refraction of light in spherical lenses through ray diagrams; formation of images - principal rays or construction rays; location of images from ray diagram for various positions of a small linear object on the principal axis; characteristics of images. Sign convention and direct numerical problems using the lens formula are included (derivation of formula not required)
  • Scale drawing or graphical representation of ray diagrams not required. Power of a lens (concave and convex) – [simple direct numerical problems]: magnifying glass or simple microscope: location of image and magnification from ray diagram only [formula and numerical problems not included]. Applications of lenses.
  • Using a triangular prism to produce a visible spectrum from white light; Electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Deviation produced by a triangular prism; dependence on colour (wavelength) of light; dispersion and spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum: broad classification (names only arranged in order of increasing wavelength); properties common to all electromagnetic radiations; properties and uses of infrared and ultraviolet radiation
3. Sound
  • Reflection of Sound Waves; echoes: their use; simple numerical problems on echoes.
  • Production of echoes, condition for formation of echoes; simple numerical problems; use of echoes by bats, dolphins, fishermen, medical field. SONAR.
  • Natural vibrations, Damped vibrations, Forced vibrations and Resonance - a special case of forced vibrations.
  • Meaning and simple applications of natural, damped, forced vibrations and resonance.
  • Loudness, pitch and quality of sound:
  • Definitions of the characteristics of sound and factors affecting them only.
4. Electricity and Magnetism
  • Ohm’s Law; concepts of emf, potential difference, resistance; resistances in series and parallel, internal resistance.
  • Concepts of pd (V), current (I), resistance (R) and charge (Q). Ohm's law: statement, V=IR; SI units; experimental verification; graph of V vs I and resistance from slope; ohmic and non-ohmic resistors, factors affecting resistance (including specific resistance) and internal resistance; super conductors, electromotive force (emf); combination of resistances in series and parallel. Simple numerical problems using the above relations. [Simple network of resistors including not more than four external resistors. Internal resistance may be included].
  • Electrical power and energy.
  • Electrical energy; examples of heater, motor, lamp, loudspeaker, etc. Electrical power; measurement of electrical energy, W = QV = VIt from the definition of pd. Combining with ohm’s law W = VIt = I2 Rt = (V2 /R)t and electrical power P = (W/t) = VI = I2 R = V2 /R. Units: SI and commercial; Power rating of common appliances, household consumption of electric energy; calculation of total energy consumed by electrical appliances; W = Pt (kilowatt × hour = kW h), [simple numerical problems].
  • Household circuits – main circuit; switches; fuses; earthing; safety precautions; three-pin plugs; colour coding of wires
  • House wiring (ring system – no diagrammatic representation), power distribution; main circuit (3 wires-live, neutral, earth) with fuse / MCB, main switch and its advantages - circuit diagram, need for earthing, fuse, 3-pin plug and socket; Conventional location of live, neutral and earth points in 3 pin plugs and sockets. Safety precautions, colour coding of wires.
  • Magnetic effect of a current (principles only, statement of laws not required); electromagnetic induction (elementary).
  • Oersted’s experiment on the magnetic effect of electric current; magnetic field (B) and field lines due to current in a straight wire (qualitative only); Right Hand Thumb Rule – magnetic field due to a current in a loop; Electromagnets: their uses; comparisons with a permanent magnet; conductor carrying current in a magnetic field experiences a force, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, and its understanding, Simple introduction to electromagnetic induction; a magnet moved along the axis of a solenoid induces current, Fleming’s Right Hand Rule and its application in understanding the direction of current in a coil and Lenz’s law. Comparison of AC and DC.
5. Heat
  • Calorimetry: meaning, specific heat capacity; principle of method of mixtures; Numerical Problems on specific heat capacity using heat loss and gain and the method of mixtures.
  • Heat and its units (calorie, joule), temperature and its units (o C, , K); thermal (heat) capacity C' = Q/T... (SI unit of C'): Specific heat Capacity C = Q/mT (SI unit of C) Mutual relation between Heat Capacity and Specific Heat capacity, values of C for some common substances (ice, water and copper). Principle of method of mixtures including mathematical statement. Natural phenomenon involving specific heat. Consequences of high specific heat of water. [Simple numerical problems].
  • Latent heat; loss and gain of heat involving change of state for fusion only. Change of phase (state); heating curve for water; latent heat; specific latent heat of fusion (SI unit). Simple numerical problems. Common physical phenomena involving latent heat of fusion.
7. Modern Physics
  • Radioactivity and changes in the nucleus; background radiation and safety precautions.
  • Brief introduction (qualitative only) of the nucleus, nuclear structure, atomic number (Z), mass number (A). Radioactivity as spontaneous disintegration. α, β and γ - their nature and properties; changes within the nucleus. One example each of α and β decay with equations showing changes in Z and A.
  • Uses of radioactivity - radio isotopes. Harmful effects. Safety precautions. Background radiation. Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants and other sources. Nuclear Energy: working on safe disposal of waste. Safety measures to be strictly reinforced.

Chemistry

Topics Contents
1. Periodic Properties and variations of Properties – Physical and Chemical
  • Periodic properties and their variations in groups and periods.
  • Definitions and trends of the following periodic properties in groups and periods should be studied:
    • atomic size
    • metallic character
    • Non-metallic character
    • ionisation potential
    • Electron affinity
    • electronegativity
  • Periodicity on the basis of atomic number for elements.
    • The study of modern periodic table up to period 4(students to be exposed to the complete modern periodic table but no questions will be asked on elements beyond period 4 - Calcium).
    • Periodicity and other related properties to be explained on the basis of nuclear charge and shells (not orbitals).
2. Chemical Bonding
  • Electrovalent, covalent and co-ordinate bonding, structures of various compounds, Electron dot structure.
    • Electrovalent bonding:
      • Electron dot structure of Electrovalent compounds NaCl, MgCl2, CaO.
      • Characteristic properties of electrovalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), dissociation in solution and in molten state to be linked with electrolysis.
    • Covalent bonding:
      • Electron dot structure of covalent molecules on the basis of duplet and octet of electrons (example: hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, methane.
      • Polar Covalent compounds – based on difference in electronegativity: Examples – HCl, NH3 and H2O including structures
      • Characteristic properties of Covalent compounds – state of existence, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), ionisation in solution.
    • Coordinating bonding:
      • Definition
      • The lone pair effect of the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule to explain the formation of H3O+ and OH- ions in water and NH4 + ion.
    3. Study of Acids, Bases and Salts
    • Simple definitions, classification and their characteristic properties.
    • Ions present in mineral acids, alkalis and salts and their solutions; use of litmus and pH paper to test for acidity and alkalinity.
      • Examples with equation for the ionisation/dissociation of acids, bases and salts.
      • Acids form hydronium ions (only positive ions) which turn blue litmus red, alkalis form hydroxyl ions (only negative ions) with water which turns red litmus blue.
      • Salts are formed by partial or complete replacement of the hydrogen ion of an acid by a metal or ionic definition of salt. (To be explained with suitable examples). 
      • Introduction to pH scale to test for acidity, neutrality and alkalinity by using pH paper or Universal indicator and common acid base indicators.
    • Types of salts: normal salts, acid salt, basic salt, definition and examples.
    • Action of dilute acids on salts. Decomposition of hydrogen carbonates, carbonates, sulphites and sulphides by appropriate acids with heating if necessary. (Relevant laboratory work must be done).
    • Methods of preparation of Normal salts with relevant equations. (Details of apparatus or procedures not required). Methods include:
      ~ Direct combination 
      ~ Displacement
      ~ Precipitation (double decomposition)
      ~ Neutralization of insoluble base 
      ~ Neutralisation of an alkali (titration) 
      ~ Action of dilute acids on carbonates and bi-carbonates
    4. Analytical Chemistry
    • Action of Ammonium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide on solution of salts: colour of salt and its solution; formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated for solutions of salts of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb; special action of ammonium hydroxide on solutions of copper salt and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
    • On solution of salts
      • Colour of salt and its solution.
      • Action on addition of Sodium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop and in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations
      • Action on addition of Ammonium Hydroxide to solution of Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb salts drop by drop and in excess. Formation and colour of hydroxide precipitated to be highlighted with the help of equations.
      • Special action of Ammonium Hydroxide on solutions of copper salts and sodium hydroxide on ammonium salts.
    • Action of alkalis (NaOH, KOH) on certain metals, their oxides and hydroxides.
    • The metals must include aluminium, zinc and lead, their oxides and hydroxides, which react with caustic alkalis (NaOH, KOH), showing the amphoteric nature of these substances
    5. Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
    • Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes; Avogadro’s Law
      - Idea of mole – a number just as a dozen, a gross (Avogadro’s number).
      - Avogadro’s Law - statement and explanation.
      - Gay Lussac’s Law of Combining Volumes. – Statement and explanation.
      - Understanding molar volume- “the mass of 22.4 litres of any gas at S.T.P. is equal to its molar mass”. (Questions will not be set on formal proof but may be taught for clear understanding).
      - Simple calculations based on the molar volume and Gay Lussac’s law.
    • Refer to the atomicity of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and chlorine (proof not required).
      - The explanation can be given using equations for the formation of HCl, NH3, and NO
    • Vapour Density and its relation to relative molecular mass:
      - Molecular mass = 2 x vapour density (formal proof not required)
      - Deduction of simple (empirical) and molecular formula from:
      -- the percentage composition of a compound.
      -- the masses of combining elements
    • Mole and its relation to mass.
      - Relating mole and atomic mass; arriving at gram atomic mass and then gram atom; atomic mass is a number dealing with one atom; gram atomic mass is the mass of one mole of atoms.
      - Relating mole and molecular mass arriving at gram molecular mass and gram molecule – molecular mass is a number dealing with a molecule, gram molecular mass is the mass of one mole of molecules.
      - Simple calculations based on relation of mole to mass, volume and Avogadro’s number.
    • Simple calculations based on chemical equations
      • Related to weight and/or volumes of both reactants and products.
      6. Electrolysis
      • Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Definitions and examples.
      • Substances containing molecules only, ions only, both molecules and ions.
        • Substances containing molecules only ions only, both molecules and ions.
        • Examples: relating their composition with their behaviour as strong and weak electrolytes as well as non-electrolytes.
      • Definition and explanation of electrolysis, electrolyte, electrode, anode, cathode, anion,  cation, oxidation and reduction (on the basis of loss and gain of electrons).
      • An elementary study of the migration of ions, with reference to the factors influencing selective discharge of ions (reference should be made to the activity series as indicating the tendency of metals, e.g., Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, to form ions) illustrated by the electrolysis of:
        • Molten lead bromide
        • acidified water with platinum electrodes
        • Aqueous copper (II) sulphate with inert electrode, copper electrodes; electron transfer at the electrodes
      • The above electrolytic processes can be studied in terms of electrolyte used, electrodes used, ionization reaction, anode reaction, cathode reaction, use of selective discharge theory, wherever applicable.
      • Applications of electrolysis
        • Electroplating with nickel and silver, choice of electrolyte for electroplating
        • Electro refining of copper.
      • Reasons and conditions for electroplating; names of the electrolytes and the electrodes used should be given. Equations for the reactions at the electrodes should be given for electroplating, refining of copper.
      7. Metallurgy
      • Occurrence of metals in nature:
        • Mineral and Ore - Meaning only
        • Common ores of iron, aluminium and zinc
      • Stages involved in the extraction of metals
        - Dressing of the ore – hydrolytic method, magnetic separation, froth flotation method.
        - Conversion of concentrated ore to its oxide- roasting and calcination (definition, examples with equations).
        - Reduction of metallic oxides- some can be reduced by hydrogen, carbon and carbon monoxide (e.g. copper oxide, lead (II) oxide, iron (III) oxide and zinc oxide) and some cannot (e.g. Al2O3, MgO) - refer to activity series). Active metals by electrolysis e.g. sodium, potassium and calcium. (reference only).
        - Electro refining – reference only
      • Extraction of Aluminium
        - Chemical method for purifying bauxite by using NaOH – Baeyer’s Process.
        - Electrolytic extraction – Hall Heroult’s process:Structure of electrolytic cell - the various components as part of the electrolyte, electrodes and electrode reactions.
      • Description of the changes occurring, purpose of the substances used and the main reactions with their equations.
      • Alloys – composition and uses. Stainless steel, duralumin, magnalium, brass, bronze, fuse metal / solder.
      8. Study of Compounds
      • Hydrogen Chloride
        • Hydrogen chloride: preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; refer to the density and solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); reaction with ammonia; acidic properties of its solution
        • Preparation of hydrogen chloride from sodium chloride; the laboratory method of preparation can be learnt in terms of reactants, product, condition, equation, diagram or setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, precaution, collection of the gas and identification /tests.
        • Simple experiment to show the density of the gas (Hydrogen Chloride) –heavier than air.
        • Solubility of hydrogen chloride (fountain experiment); setting of the apparatus, procedure, observation, inference.
        • Method of preparation of hydrochloric acid by dissolving the gas in water- the special funnel arrangement and the mechanism by which the back suction is avoided should be learnt.
        • Reaction with ammonia
        • Acidic properties of its solution - reaction with metals, their oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to give their chlorides; decomposition of carbonates, hydrogen carbonates, sulphides, sulphites.
        • Reaction of Manganese dioxide with concentrated HCl
        • Precipitation reactions with silver nitrate solution and lead nitrate solution.
      • Ammonia
        • Ammonia: its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN and ammonium salts. Manufacture by Haber’s Process; density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment); aqueous solution of ammonia; its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide and lead monoxide and chlorine; the burning of ammonia in oxygen;uses of ammonia
        • Laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection; (the preparation to be studied in terms of, setting of the apparatus and diagram, procedure, observation, collection and identification/tests.)
        • Ammonia from nitrides like Mg3N2 and AlN using warm water. Ammonia from ammonium salts using alkalies.
        • The reactions to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions and equations.
        • Manufacture by Haber’s Process.
        • Density and solubility of ammonia (fountain experiment).
        • The burning of ammonia in oxygen
        • The catalytic oxidation of ammonia (with conditions and reaction)
        • Its reactions with hydrogen chloride and with hot copper (II) oxide, lead monoxide and chlorine (both chlorine in excess and ammonia in excess).
        • All these reactions may be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations and observations.
        • Aqueous solution of ammonia - reaction with sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and solutions of iron(III) chloride, iron(II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate and copper sulphate.
        • Uses of ammonia - manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, nitric acid, refrigerant gas (Chlorofluro carbon – and its suitable alternatives which are non- ozone depleting), and cleansing agents.
      • Nitric Acid
        • Nitric Acid: one laboratory method of preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate. Large scale preparation. Nitric acid as an oxidizing agent
        • Laboratory preparation of nitric acid from potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate; the laboratory method to be studied in terms of reactants, products, conditions, equations, setting up of apparatus, diagram, precautions, collection and identification/tests
        • Manufacture of Nitric acid by Ostwald’s process (Only equations with conditions where applicable).
        • As an oxidising agent: its reaction with copper, carbon, sulphur.
      • Sulphuric Acid
        • Large scale preparation, its behaviour as an acid when dilute, as an oxidizing agent when concentrated - oxidation of carbon, sulphur and copper; as a dehydrating agent - dehydration of sugar (cane sugar/glucose) and copper (II) sulphate crystals; its non-volatile nature.
        • Manufacture by Contact Process Equations with conditions where applicable)
        • Its behaviour as an acid when dilute - reaction with metal, metal oxide, metal hydroxide, metal carbonate, metal bicarbonate, metal sulphite, metal sulphide.
        • Concentrated sulphuric acid as an oxidizing agent - the oxidation of carbon sulphur and copper.
        • Concentrated sulphuric acid as a dehydrating agent- (a) the dehydration of sugar (b) Copper (II) sulphate crystals.
        • Non-volatile nature of sulphuric acid - reaction with sodium or potassium chloride and sodium or potassium nitrate.
      9. Organic Chemistry
      • Introduction to Organic compounds.
        • Unique nature of Carbon atom – tetra valency, catenation.
        • Formation of single, double and triple bonds, straight chain, branched chain, cyclic compounds (only benzene).
      • Structure and Isomerism.
        • Structure of compounds with single, double and triple bonds.
        • Structural formulae of hydrocarbons. Structural formula must be given for: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, aldehydes and carboxylic acid up to 5 carbon atoms.
        • Isomerism – structural (chain, position)
      • Homologous series – characteristics with examples.
        • Alkane, alkene, alkyne series and their gradation in properties and the relationship with the molecular mass or molecular formula
      • Simple nomenclature
        • Simple nomenclature of the hydrocarbons with simple functional groups – (double bond, triple bond, alcoholic, aldehydic, carboxylic group) longest chain rule and smallest number for functional groups rule – trivial and IUPAC names (compounds with only one functional group).
      • Hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes.
        • Alkanes - general formula; methane (greenhouse gas) and ethane - methods of preparation from sodium ethanoate (sodium acetate), sodium propanoate (sodium propionate), from iodomethane (methyl iodide) and bromoethane (ethyl bromide). Complete combustion of methane and ethane, reaction of methane and ethane with chlorine through substitution.
        • Alkenes – (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double bond); ethene as an example. Methods of preparation of ethene by dehydro halogenation reaction and dehydration reactions.
        • Alkynes - (unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple bond); ethyne as an example of alkyne; Methods of preparation from calcium carbide and 1,2 dibromoethane ethylene dibromide).
        • Only main properties, particularly addition products with hydrogen and halogen namely Cl2, Br2 and I2 pertaining to alkenes and alkynes. Uses of methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne
        • Alcohols: Ethanol- preparation, properties and uses.
        • Preparation of ethanol by hydrolysis of alkyl halide
        • Properties- Physical: Nature, Solubility, Density, Boiling Points. Chemical: Combustion, action with sodium, ester formation with acetic acid, dehydration with conc. Sulphuric acid to prepare ehene.
        • Denatured and spurious alcohol
        • Important uses of Ethanol
        • Carboxylic acids (aliphatic- mono carboxylic acid): Acetic acid - properties and uses of acetic acid
        • Structure of acetic acid
        • Properties of Acetic acid: Physical properties - odour (vinegar), glacial acetic acid (effect of sufficient cooling to produce ice like crystals). Chemical properties - action with litmus, alkalis and alcohol (idea of esterification).
        • Uses of Acetic acid.

      Biology

      Topic Contents
      1. Basic Biology
      • Cell cycle and Cell Division
      • Cell cycle - Interphase (G1,S,G2) and Mitotic phase
      • Cell Division
        • Mitosis and its stages.
        • A basic understanding of Meiosis as a reduction division (stages not required).
        • A brief idea of homologous chromosomes and crossing over leading to variations.
        • Significance and major differences between mitotic and meiotic division.
      • Structure of chromosome.
        • Basic structure of chromosome with elementary understanding of terms such as chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA and centromere
      • Genetics: Mendel’s laws of inheritance and sex-linked inheritance of diseases.
        • The three laws of Mendel
        • Monohybrid cross – phenotype and genotype.
        • Dihybrid cross – Only phenotype.
        • The following terms to be covered: gene, allele, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, mutation, variation, phenotype, genotype.
        • Sex determination in human beings
          • Sex linked inheritance of diseases to include only X-linked like haemophilia and colour blindness.
      2. Plant Physiology
      • Absorption by roots, imbibition, diffusion and osmosis; osmotic pressure, root pressure; turgidity and flaccidity; plasmolysis and deplasmolysis; the absorption of water and minerals; active and passive transport (in brief); The rise of water up to the xylem; Forces responsible for ascent of sap.
        • Understanding of the processes related to absorption of water by the roots.
        • Characteristics of roots, which make them suitable for absorbing water.
        • Structure of a single full-grown root hair.
        • A general idea of Cohesive, Adhesive forces and transpirational pull.
        • Experiments to show the conduction of water through the xylem
      • Transpiration - process and significance. Ganong’s potometer and its limitations. The factors affecting rate of transpiration. Experiments on transpiration. A brief idea of guttation and bleeding
        • Concept of transpiration and its importance to plants
        • Experiments related to transpiration:
          • Loss in weight of a potted plant or a leafy shoot in a test tube as a result of transpiration
          • Use of cobalt chloride paper to demonstrate unequal rate of transpiration in a dorsiventral leaf
        • Adaptations in plants to reduce transpiration.
        • A brief idea of guttation and bleeding.
      • Photosynthesis: the process and its importance to life in general; experiments to show the necessity of light, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, formation of starch and release of oxygen.
        • The process and significance of Photosynthesis.
        • The internal structure of chloroplast to be explained to give an idea of the site of light and dark reactions.
        • Opening and closing of stomata based on potassium ion exchange theory.
        • Overall balanced chemical equation to represent photosynthesis.
        • Introduction of the terms "photochemical" for light phase and "biosynthetic" for dark phases.
        • Light reaction - activation of chlorophyll followed by photolysis of water, release of O2, formation of ATP (photophosphorylation) and NADPH
        • Dark reaction - only combination of hydrogen released by NADP with CO2 to form glucose. (detailed equations are not required).
        • Adaptations in plants for photosynthesis
        • Experiments with regard to the factors essential for photosynthesis; emphasis on destarching and the steps involved in starch test.
      • Chemical coordination in Plants: A general study of plant growth regulators; Tropic movements in plants.
        • A brief idea of the physiological effects of Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid and Ethylene in regulating the growth of plants.
        • A basic understanding of the tropic movements in plants with reference to – Phototropism, Geotropism, Hydrotropism, Thigmotropism and Chemotropism (supported with suitable examples).
      3. Human Anatomy and  Physiology
      • Circulatory System: Blood and lymph, the structure and working of the heart, blood vessels, circulation of blood (only names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, liver and kidney will be required). Lymphatic system.
        • Composition of blood (structure and functions of RBC, WBC and platelets).
        • Brief idea of tissue fluid and lymph
        • Increase in efficiency of mammalian red blood cells due to absence of certain organelles; reasons for the same.
        • A brief idea of blood coagulation
        • Structure and working of the heart along with names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, the liver and the kidney.
        • Concept of systole and diastole; concept of double circulation
        • Brief idea of pulse and blood pressure
        • Blood vessels: artery, vein and capillary to be explained with the help of diagrams to bring out the relationship between their structure and function.
        • Brief idea of the lymphatic organs: spleen and tonsils.
        • ABO blood group system, Rh factor.
        • Significance of the hepatic portal system.
      • Excretory System: A brief introduction to the excretory organs; parts of the urinary system; structure and function of the kidneys; blood vessels associated with kidneys; structure and function of nephron
        • A brief idea of different excretory organs in the human body.
        • External and internal structure of the kidney;
        • Parts of the urinary system along with the blood vessels entering and leaving the kidney; functions of various parts of the urinary system (emphasis on diagram with correct labelling). A general idea of the structure of a kidney tubule/ nephron.
        • A brief idea of ultra-filtration (emphasis on the diagram of malpighian capsule); selective reabsorption and tubular secretion in relation to the composition of blood plasma and urine formed.
      • Nervous system: Structure of Neuron; central, autonomous and peripheral nervous system (in brief); brain and spinal cord; reflex action and how it differs from voluntary action. Sense organs – Eye: Structure, functions, defects and corrective measures: Ear: Parts and functions of the ear
        • Parts of a neuron.
        • Various parts of the external structure of the brain and its primary parts: Medulla Oblongata, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Pons; their functions.
        • Reference to the distribution of white and gray matter in Brain and Spinal cord.
        • Voluntary and involuntary actions – meaning with examples
        • Diagrammatic explanation of the reflex arc, showing the pathway from receptor to effector.
        • A brief idea of the peripheral and autonomic nervous system in regulating body activities
        • Differences between natural and acquired reflex
        • External and Internal structure and functions of the Eye and Ear and their various parts
        • A brief idea of stereoscopic vision, adaptation and accommodation of eye.
        • Defects of the eye (myopia, hyperopia hypermetropia, presbyopia, astigmatism and cataract) and corrective measures (diagrams included for myopia and hyperopia only)
        • The course of perception of sound in human ear.
        • Role of ear in maintaining balance of the body.
      • Endocrine System: General study of the following glands: Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid and Pituitary. Endocrine and Exocrine glands
        • Differences between Endocrine and Exocrine glands.
        • Exact location and shape of the endocrine glands in the human body
        • Hormones secreted by the following glands: Pancreas: insulin and glucagon; Thyroid: only thyroxin; Adrenal gland: Cortical hormones and adrenaline; Pituitary: growth hormone, tropic hormones, ADH and oxytocin.
        • Effects of hypo secretion and hyper secretion of hormones.
      • The Reproductive System: Organs, fertilisation functions of placenta in the growth of the embryo Menstrual cycle.
        • Functions of Male and Female reproductive organs and male accessory glands. An idea of secondary sexual characters
        • Structure and functions of the various parts of the sperm and egg.
        • Explanation of the terms: Fertilization, implantation, placenta, gestation and parturition
        • A brief idea of the role of placenta in nutrition, respiration and excretion of the embryo; its endocrinal function.
        • Functions of Foetal membranes and amniotic fluid
        • Menstrual cycle outline of menstrual cycle.
        • Role of Sex hormones: Testosterone, Oestrogen and Progesterone in reproduction.
        • Identical and fraternal twins: meaning and differences only.
      4. Population
      • Population explosion in India; need for adopting control measures - population control.
        • Main reasons for the sharp rise in human population in India and in the world.
        • A brief explanation of the terms: demography, population density, birth rate, death rate and growth rate of population.
        • Problems faced due to population explosion: unemployment, over exploitation of natural resources, low per capita income, price rise, pollution, unequal distribution of wealth.
        • Methods of population control: Surgical methods – Tubectomy and vasectomy.
      5. Pollution
      • Types and sources of pollution; major pollutants.
        • Air: Vehicular, industrial, burning garbage, brick kilns
        • Water: Household detergents, sewage, industrial waste, oil spills.
        • Thermal pollution.
        • Soil: Industrial waste, urban commercial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers
        • Biomedical waste – used and discarded needles, syringes, soiled dressings etc
        • Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants.
        • Noise: Motor Vehicles, Industrial establishments, Construction Sites, Loudspeakers etc.
        • Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable wastes
          • Biodegradable wastes: meaning and example; paper, vegetable peels, etc. Non-biodegradable wastes: meaning and example; plastics, glass, Styrofoam etc. Pesticides like DDT etc..
        • Effects of pollution on climate, environment, human health and other organisms; control measures.
          • Brief explanation of: Greenhouse effect and Global warming, Acid rain, Ozone layer depletion
          • Measures to control pollution:
            - Use of unleaded petrol / CNG in automobiles
            - Switching of engines at traffic signal lights
            - Social forestry
            - Setting of sewage treatment plants
            - Ban on polythene and plastics
            - Organic farming
            - Euro Bharat vehicular standard.(A brief idea of the above measures)
            - A brief mention of “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan”- A national campaign for Clean India

        Economics

        Topic Contents
        1. The Productive Mechanism
        • Factors of production: Land, labour, capital and entrepreneur: their impact on the production structure in an economy
          • Land: meaning and characteristics, productivity of land – meaning only; factors affecting productivity of land.
          • Labour: meaning and characteristics; division of labour: meaning, type (product, process and geographical based division of labour) and advantages; efficiency of labour; meaning, reasons for low efficiency of Indian labour.
          • Capital: meaning and characteristics Types of capital: physical and financial capital- meaning with examples. Capital Formation; meaning, Process of capital formation; Need for capital formation.
          • Entrepreneur: meaning, functions, qualities of an entrepreneur and role of entrepreneur in economic development.
        2. Theory of Demand and Supply
        • Meaning and concept of Demand and Supply.
          • Law of demand and supply: demand and supply schedule and curve (both individual and market); movement (extension and contraction) and shift (increase and decrease) of the demand and supply curve; determinants of demand and supply
          • Meaning of demand and supply; the concept of Demand, types of demand and concept of supply to be explained (with examples).
          • A basic understanding of the law of demand and supply in which demand and supply schedules to be used to explain the demand and supply curves. The individual demand and supply curves must be distinguished from market demand and supply curves. Concept of movement and shift of Demand and Supply curves are to be explained. Determinants of demand and supply are to be specified. Exceptions to the law of demand are to be discussed.
        • Elasticity of demand and elasticity of supply:
          • meaning, types, percentage method of measuring elasticity of demand and elasticity of supply, factors affecting elasticity of demand and supply.
          • The concept of price elasticity of demand and elasticity of supply are to be explained with percentage method. Factors affecting the elasticity of demand and supply are to be specified. (Numerical problems are not for testing)
        3. Market
        • Meaning and types.
          • Meaning of Market; Types of Markets: Perfect competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition, Oligopoly - meaning with examples; a brief understanding of the features of the different types of markets along with differences.
          4. Banking in India
          • Money
            - - A basic understanding of the inconvenience of the barter system and the evolution of money; legal definition of money; functions of money: medium of exchange, measure of value; standard of deferred payment, store of value.
            • Commercial Banks
              - - Meaning. Functions of Commercial banks: Accepting deposits (a brief understanding of the types of deposits); Advancing loans (a brief understanding of the types of loans, methods of advancing loans); Credit creation (a brief understanding of credit creation on the basis of Primary and derivative deposits).
            • Central Bank
              - - Meaning. Functions of Central Bank: monopoly of Note issue; Bankers Bank; Banker, Agent and Advisor to the Government; Custodian of Foreign Exchange; Lender of the Last Resort: A brief understanding of the functions
            • Monetary Policy of the Central Bank
              - - Qualitative Credit control measures: margin requirements; credit rationing; moral suasion.

              - - Quantitative Credit control measures: Bank Rate, Open Market Operations, Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Statutory Liquidity Ratio
            • Demonetisation
              - - A brief understanding
            • Public Finance
              - - (A) Meaning of Public Finance
              - - (B) Sources of Public Revenue
              -------Tax Revenue
              => Direct Tax (meaning, merits and demerits); Indirect Tax (meaning, merits and demerits); difference between direct and indirect taxes.
              => Goods and Services Tax (GST) - Meaning and objectives
              => Non-tax revenue. Meaning with examples.
              - - (C) Public Expenditure
              => Meaning of public expenditure, Revenue and Capital expenditure with examples; reason for growth of public expenditure in India.
              - - (D) Public Debt
              => Meaning of public debt and types of public debts 
            5. Inflation
            • Inflation, Wholesale Price Index (WPI), Consumer Price Index (CPI), Food Basket: 
              - Meaning of the above.
            • Stages of Inflation
              - Creeping, Walking, Running and Hyper – meaning only.
            • Types of Inflation: Cost push inflation and demand- pull inflation
              • Meaning, causes and differences only (diagram not required). Positive and negative effects of inflation on production. Positive and negative effects of inflation on distribution with reference to fixed income group and business income group only.
              6. Consumer Awareness
              • Consumer Exploitation and Consumer awareness.
                • Meaning of consumer exploitation; a brief understanding of the forms of consumer exploitation; reasons for exploitation of consumers in India - a brief understanding. Meaning of Consumer Awareness.
              • Consumer Rights & Duties.
                • A brief understanding of the above. COPRA - 2019, meaning and features; RTI - meaning and significance.
              • Food adulteration
                • Meaning and harmful effects
              • Technical and Administrative measures for Consumer Protection:
                • A brief understanding of: Public Distribution System (PDS); Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS); AGMARK, ECOMARK.

              Commercial Studies

              1. Stakeholders in Commercial Organisations
              • Meaning of stakeholder, types: Internal (shareholder, employee and employer – meaning of each) and External stakeholders (supplier, creditor, government and society – meaning of each); differences between internal and external stakeholders.
                • Expectations of employers (owners and managers), employees, creditors and suppliers, government and society from a commercial organization.
                2. Marketing and Sales
                • Marketing
                  - Meaning and objectives of marketing. Difference between marketing and sales.
                • Product and service
                  - Meaning and difference between a product and a service (with examples).
                • Pricing
                  - Meaning and objectives
                • Advertising and Sales Promotion
                  - Advertising: meaning, difference between advertising and publicity. Advertising Agency; meaning and functions only, Social advertising media - Concept and examples only.
                  - Sales promotion – meaning and techniques; difference between advertising and sales promotion.
                • Consumer Protection
                  - Consumer Protection Act (2019); features of the Act, rights of a consumer, Consumer exploitation; meaning and types, Importance of consumer awareness.
                • E-Commerce
                  - Introduction and benefits over traditional methods of transactions, E-tailing, E-advertising, E-marketing and E-security (meaning only). ERP and its modules (brief concept).
                3. Finance and Accounting
                • Capital and Revenue
                  - Capital and revenue receipts, capital and revenue expenditure (meaning, difference and examples) deferred revenue expenditure (meaning and examples)
                • Final Accounts of sole proprietorship
                  - Meaning and preparation of Trading account, Profit and Loss account and Balance sheet based on the given trial balance with the adjustment of closing stock only.
                  - (Preparation of manufacturing account, profit and loss on sale of assets, intangible and fictitious assets, prepaid and accrued expenses and incomes are excluded.)
                • Costs
                  - Fundamental concept of Cost Classification of costs- based on behaviour (fixed, variable, semi-variable), nature (direct, indirect).
                • Budgeting
                  - Meaning and utility of budgeting; comparison between budgeting and forecasting; types of budgets: sales, production, cash, purchase and master – meaning only 
                • Sources of Finance.
                  - Capital Market
                  --> Meaning and functions of Capital Market.
                  - Sources of raising capital.
                  --> Long term: Meaning of shares (Types; preference and equity) and debentures, differences between the two.
                  --> Short term: loans from commercial banks (cash credit, overdraft, discounting of bills – meaning only).
                4. Human Resources
                Recruitment, selection and training.
                • Recruitment – meaning; sources: internal and external; advantages and disadvantages of internal and external sources.
                • Selection - meaning and steps, types of selection tests.
                • Training – meaning, objectives and methods of training (on the job and off the job).

                Industrial relations and trade unions
                --> Industrial relations: Meaning and objectives; Trade Unions: Meaning and Functions

                Social Security
                --> Concept of Social Security; brief reference to Provident Fund, Gratuity, Pension, Group Insurance and Maternity Benefits. New Pension Scheme. (Acts are not required).

                5. Logistics
                • Meaning of logistics and its classification
                • Transportation
                  - Modes of transportation: land (road and rail), air and water; merits and demerits of each.
                • Warehousing 
                  - Meaning, importance and types (public, private and bonded – meaning only).
                • Insurance
                  - Meaning; Types of insurance: Life insurance, General insurance; (Fire, Health and Marine - meaning only) principles of insurance.
                6. Banking
                • Central Bank
                  • Central Bank: Meaning and functions, Difference between the Central Bank and Commercial Banks.
                • Internet Banking
                  • Modes of transferring money / Net Banking: NEFT, RTGS, IMPS, mobile wallets: meaning only
                  • ATM, Credit & Debit cards- meaning & difference, caution to be taken while using these cards
                • Financial fraudulent practices
                  - Credit card fraud, false accounting, insurance fraud, intellectual property fraud, internet and cyber fraud. A brief understanding of these types of financial fraud.
                7. Government initiatives in Environment Protection - Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 - Features of the act.
                - Central Pollution Control Board - Functions only.

                Environmental Applications

                To give a clear understanding of ecological concepts. The learning will be enhanced if live examples are used with as many outdoor classes as possible.
                Topic Contents
                1. Caring for our Basic Resources
                  • Caring for our soil
                    • Causes and consequences of soil erosion
                      - Study improper land use, deforestation, overgrazing, etc and also the impact of soil erosion on food production, generation of wastelands, silting of waterways and dams.
                    • Soil conservation strategies.
                      - Contour Building
                      - Tree breaks
                      - Check dams
                      - A study of solutions and their applicability. Examples such as Auroville’s work and Tarun Bharat Sangh’s work.
                    • Fuel wood crisis.
                      - To develop an understanding in students that a very large section of Indians still use firewood as fuel, the impact it has on nature in terms of a fast dwindling resource and the pressure put on surviving forests. Impact on health of the poor, particularly women, from inhaling the smoke.
                    • Waste generation - its toxicity and its impact on life and land.
                      - The politics of waste dumping, the unmanageable wastes that we generate, leaching of toxins from landfills into water bodies, agricultural lands, and issues around incinerating waste.
                    • Treatment of wastes:
                      - Effluent treatment plants.
                      - Biological treatment.
                      - Strategies to reuse waste
                      - Evolving solutions to treat wastes. The scope and limitation of end of the pipe treatment.
                      - Combating Deforestation
                    • Alternatives to timber
                      - Design solutions-alternate materials, etc

                • Caring for our Air
                  • Technical methods to control air pollution.
                    - Electrostatic precipitators, cyclone separators, wet scrubber, bag filters, fluid bed boilers
                  • Strategies to reduce air pollution 
                    - Economic
                    - Penalties and subsidies, Bubble theory.
                    - Technical : Hybrid vehicles, alternate fuels, alternate energy vehicles.
                    - Traffic Management: Study of Curitiba in Brazil, synchronized signals, use of lanes, one-way roads, etc.
                  • Legislation as a means to reduce air pollution.
                    - the role of law in controlling and reducing pollution with examples like the Taj Mahal trapezium, Delhi City, etc
                  • Remote sensing satellites and their applications
                    - Why it is such a good tool ? What can it be used for ?
                  • International norms on air pollution.
                    - What are the International norms on air pollution ? how are they drawn ? Limitations with the implementing.
                    Example: Euro 1 , Euro 2.

                • Caring for our water
                  • techniques of watershed management
                    - Conserving water bodies; Study of indigenous examples like the Eri system of Tamil Nadu or Rajasthan’s traditional systems and newly evolving modern techniques of water management; Ramsar convention
                  • Rain water harvesting
                    - Roof water harvesting through percolation pits, etc.
                    - Water harvesting in rural areas through check dams, bunds etc.
                  • Small dams versus large dams
                    - An analysis - can many small dams replace a large dam? Do large rivers require large dams only?
                    - Issues around large dams. Scope and limitation of small dams. Other possibilities like Micro hydel, Mini hydel, run off the river
                  • Water Recycling 
                    - The scope of water recycling and importance.
                  • Alternatives to existing sewage treatment like dry compost toilets
                    - Decentralised answers to centralised ones, Use of decomposed night soil as a fertiliser as in China.
                2. Resource Use
                • Impact of globalisation on environment.
                  • Understanding the basic intention of globalisation; the possibility and challenge of a global economy; impact of globalisation on developing countries - increased disparities, national debt and recession; impact on human resources and natural resources.
                • Role of NGOs in sustaining environment.
                  • Study the work of a few NGOs
                  • Choose an international, national and a local NGO working in different areas - issue based, women’s collectives and child welfare organisations.
                • Evolving a sustainable growth paradigm e.g., Gandhi. Large-scale development versus Village community based self-sufficient growth.
                  • What does sustainability mean?
                  • GDP versus Growth paradox. (Questioning the notion that increase in power will bring about economic growth and this in turn will alleviate poverty.)
                  • How to integrate the principle of sustainability in development?
                  • Gandhi’s model of decentralised governance like Panchayati Raj
                  • A study of a few working examples like Khadi, Dastkar, Auroville, Gandhi gram.
                • North - South divide.
                  • Patterns of resource use in the North and the South and the impact they have on the environment of both the regions.
                3. Appropriate Eco-Friendly Technologies
                  • Scope and limitation of indigenous technology and modern technology.
                    - Study an industry like fishing and/or weaving - where both technologies are practised.
                  • Need for developing intermediate and appropriate technology.
                    - To be studied through the analysis of the power sector - the limitation of all conventional sources and the scope of alternate energy sources.
                  • Developing least cost options
                    • Environment Impact Assessments (EIA), their role including impacts while planning and the method to develop least cost options.
                    • Dynamics of implementation.
                    • Scope of grass root upward planning rather than trickle down planning.

                • Natural resource accounting.
                  - What is natural resource accounting? How to go about it? - Basic understanding with the aid of examples.
                4. Initiatives I can take
                • In my local environmrnt
                • In my future career choice
                • In supporting initiative in my state or Country

                  • By the end of Class X, the student must have a working understanding of the broad impact that his /her personal decisions can have on the environment and on society. The implications of such an understanding are that:
                    • the student is responsible for choices made.
                    • he/she is capable of mobilising responses to things that happen into meaningful and productive action.
                    • in whatever career context the student may function in later life, there is scope for applying environmental sensitivity
                    • there is a clear connectedness to people and a capacity to interpret processes and decisions in society and governance and its impact on people.
                  • This can be brought about by discussions in class or facilitated through any other empowering process.

                Physical Education

                Section - A
                Topic Contents
                1. Human Growth and Development
                • Growth and Development
                  • Meaning of growth and development and difference between the two
                  • A brief understanding of the Stages: Infancy (0 to 5 years), Childhood (5 to 12 years), Adolescence (12 to 19 years), Adulthood (19 to 65 years and above)
                • Factors that influence Human Growth and Development
                  • Hereditary, Environmental, Gender, Nationality, Nutrition.
                2. Physical Education
                • Meaning of Physical Education
                • Objectives of Physical Education
                  • Physical development, psychological development, Social development, Emotional development.
                3. Body Types
                • Endomorph, Mesomorph, Ectomorph.
                  4. Physical Fitness
                  • Meaning of Physical fitness and its importance.
                  • Components of Physical Fitness.
                    • Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance, Stamina, Strength, Flexibility
                    • Power, Speed, Coordination, Agility, Balance, Accuracy.
                  • Factors affecting Physical Fitness.
                    • Hereditary, Nutrition, Environment, Training (facilities and methods), Illness, Selfmotivation, Emotional stability, Lifestyle, Posture
                  5. Sports Training
                  • Meaning of Sports Training
                  • Importance of sports training and its objectives.
                  • Builds up strength and endurance, improves skill levels, Builds motivation, ambition and confidence, Improves knowledge of the their sport, Increases muscle tone, Facilitates good circulation, Improves agility and flexibility, Improves the rate of waste product disposal, Speeds up recovery time, More resistant to injury and illness, Improves concentration, Increases self-esteem.
                  • Principles of Sports Training.
                    - Individuality, Specificity, Progression, Overload, Adaptation, Recovery, Reversibility, Variance, Frequency, Continuity, Active participation, Periodization, Intensity. A brief understanding of the above.
                  6. Safety in Sports
                  • Sports related injuries.
                    • Muscle strain/Pulled muscle, Torn ACL (anterior cruciate ligament), Torn MCL (medial collateral ligament), Shin splints, Stress fracture, Fracture, Plantar fasciitis, sprained ankle, Tennis elbow, Low back pain, Hip Bursitis, Concussion, Achilles tendonitis, Runner's knee.
                    • A brief understanding of the sports injuries and first aid for these injuries.
                  • Prevention of injuries.
                    • Warming up and cooling down to be done; fitness of the participant; use of correct equipment and maintaining equipment; Proper knowledge of rules of the game/ sport; Wearing the recommended protective gear; importance of resting between workouts; supervision of coach / teacher; proper training of skills and techniques; safe facilities.
                  7. Health Education
                  • Meaning and Importance of Health Education
                  • Nutrition
                    • Meaning of Nutrition and balanced diet. Balanced Diet - basic constituents, functions and sources: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, Fiber;
                    • A brief understanding of malnutrition - undernutrition and overnutrition
                  • Dietary modification for Sportsperson
                    • Calories (carbohydrates; Proteins; Vitamins; Fluid; Salts (sodium etc.)
                  • Meal planning guidelines for various physical activities with sample menus.
                  8. Careers in Physical Education
                  • Various career options in Physical Education
                  • Coach, Physical Education Teachers, professional sportsperson, Sports management, Commentators, Officials.
                  • A brief understanding of the above
                  Section - B

                  Any two of the following games are to be studied:

                  Cricket, Football, Hockey, Basketball, Volleyball, Badminton.

                  The details for each game are given below:

                  1. Cricket
                    • Knowledge of the game
                    • Rules of the game
                      • The Field of play: Diagram of the cricket field and pitch with measurements and specifications; The Ball (Shape, Material, Circumference, Weight); The Bat (Length, Width, Material); Stumps and bails (Height, Width); The Players (Number of players (playing eleven and substitutes); Substitutions; The Players’ Equipment; Compulsory equipment; Types of matches (One day, Five days, Four days and T20); Officials and their duties (2 field umpires, 1 third umpire, 1 match referee and 2 scorers); The Ball in and out of Play; Ways of a batsman getting out.
                    • Fundamental skills and technique
                      • Batting (On drive, off drive, Square cut and Leg glance); Fielding (Close catching, catching 'In the outfield', Long barrier and Throwing); Bowling (In swing, Out swing, Yorker and Full toss); wicketkeeping (Footwork, Catching the ball, and Diving).
                    • Terminology
                    Maiden over Hat Trick Extra
                    Dead Rubber Seam Bowling Over
                    Dead Rubber Seam Bowling Over
                    No Ball Bouncer Sight Screen
                    Bump Ball Danger Area Powerplay
                    Overthrow Declaration Appeal
                    Bodyline Bowling Dot Ball Substitute
                    Dead Ball Ball Tampering Century
                    Follow-on Golden Duck Nick
                    Night Watchman Tail Ender Pull Shot
                    Innings Defeat Cover Drive Innings
                    Straight Drive Sweep shot Hook Shot
                    Reverse Sweep Upper Cut Late Cut
                    Leg glance Pull shot Flick Shot
                    Beamer Off Cutter Leg Cutter
                    Short Pitch Full length Delivery Reverse Swing
                      • National and International governing bodies of Cricket
                        • BCCI - Board of Control for Cricket in India
                        • ICC - International Cricket Council.
                      • National and International tournaments
                        • National Tournament: Ranji Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Vijay Hazare Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Irani Trophy, Indian Premier League International Tournaments: ICC Cricket World Cup, ICC champions Trophy, ICC World T20, World Cricket League
                      2. Football
                        • Knowledge of the game
                        • laws of the game
                          • The Field of play: Diagram of the Field with Measurements and Specifications, Height and Width of Goalpost, Height of Corner flags
                          • The Ball: Shape, Material, Circumference, weight, Air pressure
                          • The Players: Number of players (playing eleven and substitutes), Number of substitutions allowed in a match, Substitution procedure
                          • The Players’ Equipment, Compulsory Equipment
                          • The Referee: Powers and Duties, Compulsory Equipment, Referee signals
                          • Other match officials: Assistant Referees: Duties and Signals; Fourth official: Duties; Additional assistant referee: Duties; Reserve assistant referee: Duties
                          • The Duration of the Match: Periods of play, Halftime interval, Allowance for time lost, Penalty kick, Abandoned match
                          • The Start and Restart of Play: Kick-off and its Procedure (start, both halves, both halves of extra time and restarts play after a goal), Free kicks and its Procedure (Direct and Indirect), Penalty Kicks and its Procedure, Throw-in and its Procedure, Goal kicks and its Procedure, Corner Kicks and its Procedure
                          • The Ball in and out of Play Determining the outcome of a match: Goal scored, Winning team, Kicks from the penalty mark
                          • Offside: Offside position, Offside offence, No offence
                          • Fouls and Misconduct: Direct free kick, Indirect free kick, Disciplinary action (Yellow card and Red card), Restart of play after fouls and misconduct
                        • Fundamental Skills and Technique
                          • Passing (Short pass and Long pass); Trapping (Step trap, inside trap, Thigh trap, Chest trap and Head trap); Shooting (Instep, Swerve shot, Chip and toe punt); Dribbling; Receiving; Heading; Tackle; Goalkeeping.
                        • Terminology
                      Advantage Zonal Marking Sliding Tackle
                      Through Pass Quarter Circle Man-to-man marking
                      Additional time Extra time Nutmeg
                      One-on-one Step- over Technical Area
                      Volley Half Volley Attacker
                      Defender Chip Cross
                      Overlap Lob Banana Kick
                      Wall Pass Goal Line Technology (GLT)
                      • National and International Governing Bodies
                        • AIFF - All India Football Federation
                        • FIFA - Federation Internationale de Football Assosciation
                        • IFAB - International Football Assosciation Board
                      • National and International Tournaments
                        • National Tournament: Santosh Trophy, Subroto Cup, Federation Cup, Durand Cup, I – League International Tournament: FIFA World Cup, UEFA European Championship, AFC Cup
                      3. Hockey
                        • Knowledge of the game
                        • Rules of the game
                          • Field of play: Diagram of the Field with Measurements and Specifications
                          • Composition of teams: Number of Players, Substitution rule for Field players and Goalkeepers
                          • Captains: Identity and Responsibility Players’ clothing and equipment: Uniform and equipment of field players, Goalkeepers Match and result: Duration of the match and half time, Result of match
                          • Start and re-start of the match: Procedure of Start (centre pass) and Re-start (Bully, Free hit, Second half) Ball outside the field: Procedure to re-start from different areas, side line, back line, after every goal Method of scoring
                          • Conduct of play: Players, Goalkeepers and Players with Goalkeeping Privileges; Umpires (Responsibilities of Umpires).
                          • Penalties and procedures for taking penalties: Awarding: Free Hit, Penalty Corner and Penalty Stroke; Procedures: Free hit, Penalty corner, Penalty stroke
                          • Personal Penalties: Cautions (Verbal warning); Temporary suspension: Green Card - 2 minutes suspension, Yellow Card- 5 minutes suspension; Permanent suspension (Red Card)
                        • Equipment Specifications
                          • Field Equipment: Goal-post: (side board, back board and net); Flag post
                          • Hockey Stick (Specification and Properties) Ball: Shape, Material, Circumference, Weight, Colour
                        • Fundamental Skills and Technique
                          • Passing (Push, Drive and Sweep)
                          • Trap ( Upright stop & Flat stop)
                          • Dribbling ( Straight dribble, Loose dribble, Indian dribble, Dribbling pullback, one hand dribble: right hand an reverse side)
                          • Shooting, Goalkeeping
                        • Terminology
                      Forehand Playing Distance Tackle
                      Back Stick Dangerous Play Field Goal
                      Obstruction Raised Ball High Stick
                      Hooking Reverse Stick Push
                      Scoop Advantage Flick High Ball
                      Shooting Circle Under Cutting Jab
                      Foot Give and Go Carry the Wall
                      Centre Pass Back Pass Reverse Hit
                      Rebound Rusher Long Corner
                      Through pass Stroke Cross
                      16-yard hit
                      • National and International Governing Bodies
                        • FIH - Fédération Internationale de Hockey (French)
                        • IHF - Indian Hockey Federation
                      • National and International tournaments
                        • National Tournaments: All India Gurmeet Memorial Hockey Tournament. Chandigarh, All India Chhatrapati Shivaji Hockey Tournament. Delhi, All India Indira Gold Cup Hockey Tournament, Jammu.
                        • International Tournaments: Sultan Azlan Shah Hockey Tournament, World Hockey Cup, Champions Trophy.
                      4. Basketball
                        • Knowledge of the game
                        • Rules and Regulations of the game
                          • Court: Diagram of the court with Dimensions and Specifications, Meaning of Court areas, lines, circle, semi-circle, position of the scorer's table and substitution chairs. Equipment needed to conduct the game
                          • Teams: Definition, Rules, Players uniform Injured players
                          • Captain and Coaches: Duties and powers Duration of Play Playing time, Tied score and Extra periods
                          • Status of the ball: Ball Live, Ball Dead
                          • Jump ball and Alternating possession: Jump ball: Definition, Procedure and Situations; Alternating possession: Definition and Procedure
                          • How the ball is played: Definition and Rule
                          • Control of Ball: Definition, Team Control: Continues and Ends
                          • Goal: When made and its value, Definition, Rule of scoring
                          • Throw-in, time-out, substitution: Definition, Rules and procedures
                          • Game Lost by Forfeit, default, violation: Rules and Penalty
                          • Player out of bounce and Ball Out of Bounds: Definition and Rule
                          • Dribbling: Definition, a dribble starts, a dribble ends, rule for dribbling
                          • Travelling: Definition, Pivot
                          • Closely Guarded player: Definition and rule
                          • 3 Seconds rule, 8 Seconds rule, 24 Seconds rule and procedure
                          • Ball returned to backcourt: Definition, Rule and Penalty
                          • Goaltending and Interference: Definition and rule; Meaning and penalty of Interference; Penalty for The Respective Violations.
                          • Fouls – Definition; Personal Foul, Double Foul - Definition and Penalty; Technical Foul: Rules of conduct, Violence, Definition and Penalty; Unsportsmanlike Foul, Disqualifying foul - Definition and Penalty
                          • Fighting - Definition, Rule and Penalty; Penalty for the respective Fouls; Five fouls by a player; Team fouls: Definition and Rule.
                          • Contact: General principles: Cylinder principle, Principle of verticality, Legal guarding position, guarding a player who controls the ball, Guarding a player who does not control the ball, A player who is in the air, Screening (Legal and Illegal), Charging, Blocking, No charge semi-circle areas, Contacting an opponent with the hand(s) or arm(s), Holding, Pushing
                          • Free Throws - Definition, Rule and Penalty
                          • Duties and Powers of: Officials, Table officials and Commissioner; Referee; Scorer and Assistant Scorer; Timer; Short clock operator
                        • Fundamental Skills and Technique
                          • Dribbling (high dribble, change of pace, crossover, between the legs and behind the back)
                          • Passing (chest pass, bounce pass, baseball pass, outlet pass and no-look pass)
                          • Shooting (layup, jump shot, hook shot, free throw, bank shot and slam dunk)
                          • Defence (man to man defence, zone defence and combination defence)
                          • Offence (early offence, set offence, motion offence, zone offence and spread offence)
                          • Rebounding (Offensive and Defensive) Pivot
                        • Terminology
                      Drive Fake Fast Break
                      Blocking Charge Carry
                      Screen Double Dribble Travel
                      Triple Threat Ball Handler Dead Ball
                      Front Court Loose Ball Held Ball
                      Dunk Field Goal Alley-Oop
                      Back Court Press Box out
                      Double Foul Jump stop Timeout
                      Air Ball Jump ball Game Clock
                      Block Possession Arrow
                      • National and International Governing Bodies of Basketball
                        • BFI - Basketball federation of India
                        • FIBA - Federation Internationale De Basketball
                      • National and International tournaments
                        • National Tournaments: Youth National Basketball Championships, Federation Cup Basketball Championship, UBA Pro Basketball League
                        • International Tournaments: FIBA World, Championship, European Basketball Championship, FIBA Asia Championship
                      5. Volleyball
                        • Knowledge of the game
                        • Rules of the game
                          • Ball: Shape, Material, Weight, Circumference, Air Pressure
                          • Composition of teams
                          • Players equipment and forbidden objects
                          • Team Leaders: Responsibility of Captain, Coach and Assistant coach
                          • Playing Format: To score a point, To win a set, To win the match
                          • Structure of Play: The Toss, Official warm-up session, Team starting line-up, Positions and Positional fault, Rotation and Rotation fault
                          • States of Play: Ball in play, Ball out of play, Ball "IN", Ball "OUT"
                          • Playing the ball: Team Hits, Characteristics of the hit, Faults in playing the ball, Ball at the net, Ball crossing the net, Ball touching the net, Ball in the net
                          • Player at the net: Reaching beyond the net, Penetration under the net, Contact with the net, Player's faults at the net
                          • Service: First service in a set, Service order, Authorization of the service, Execution of the service, Screening, Faults made during service, Serving faults and Positional faults
                          • Attack hit: Characteristics, Restrictions, Faults
                          • Block: Blocking, Block contact, Blocking within the opponent's space, Block and team hits, Blocking the service, Blocking faults
                          • Interruptions, Delays and Intervals: Interruptions (meaning); Number of regular game interruptions; Sequence of regular game interruptions; Request for regular game interruptions;
                          • Time-outs and Technical time-outs
                          • Exceptional game interruptions: Injury/illness, External interference, Prolonged interruptions Substitution: Limitation, Exceptional, Expulsion/disqualification, Illegal, Procedure, Improper request
                          • Game delays: Types of delays, Delay sanctions Intervals and change of court
                          • Libero player: Designation of the Libero, Equipment, Actions involving the libero, Redesignation of a new libero
                          • Participants' conduct: Sportsmanlike conduct, Fair play Misconduct and its sanctions: Minor misconduct, Misconduct leading to sanction, Sanction scale,
                          • Cards used: Warning (Verbal and Yellow card); Penalty (Red card); Expulsion (Red plus Yellow card jointly); Disqualification (Red plus Yellow card separately)
                          • Referees: Composition, Procedures, Location, Authority and Responsibilities of: First referee, Second referee, Scorer, Assistant scorer, Line judges.
                        • Fundamentals Skills and Techniques
                          • Service (Underhand, Topspin, Float, Jump serve and Jump Float)
                          • Pass (Underarm pass and overhand pass)
                          • Set (Overhead and Bump)
                          • Attack/spike (Backcourt, Line and cross-court shot, Dip, Block-abuse, Off-speed hit, Quick hit, Slide and Double-quick hit)
                          • Block (Single block, Double block and Triple block)
                          • Dig
                        • Terminology
                      Back row attack Block assist Side out
                      Blocking error Floater Two set
                      Extension Roll free ball Joust
                      Overlapping Back set Carry
                      Closing the block Ball down Quick set
                      Serving zone Defence zone Attack zone
                      Foot Fault Net Violation Trap set
                      Reading an opponent Cross-court attack
                      • National and International Governing Bodies of Volleyball
                        • VFI - Volleyball Federation of India
                        • FIVB - Federation International De Volleyball
                      • National and International tournaments
                        • National Tournaments: Indian Volleyball League, Federation Cup, Poornima Trophy
                        • International Tournaments: World Championship, World Cup Volleyball, Super Challenge Cup
                      6. Badminton
                        • Knowledge of the game
                        • Rules of the game
                          • Court: Diagram of the court with Measurements and Specifications, Court equipment (Posts and Net)
                          • Shuttle: Dimensions and Specifications, Testing a shuttle for speed
                          • Racket: Diagram of the racket with Measurements and Specifications
                          • Toss: Procedure Scoring system Change of ends
                          • Service: Singles (serving and receiving courts); Doubles: Serving and receiving courts, Order of play and position on court, Scoring and serving, Sequence of serving
                          • Service court errors Lets Shuttle not in play Continuous play, Misconduct and Penalties Officials duties and appeals: Referee, Umpire, Service judge, Line judges
                        • Fundamental Skills
                          • Grip (Forehand grip and Backhand grip)
                          • Footwork
                          • Serve (High serve, Low serve, Flick serve)
                          • Strokes (Overhead forehand stroke, Overhead backhand stroke, Underarm forehand stroke and Underarm backhand stroke)
                          • Shots (Clearing/lobbing, Drop shots and Smash)
                        • Terminology
                      Short Serve Long Serve Wide Serve
                      Service Order Love All
                      Deuce Forecourt Mid-court
                      Rear court Rally Set
                      Rubber Lunge Clear Lob
                      Half Smash Carry Baseline Smash
                      Full smash Drive Push shot
                      Tumbling net shot Net Kill Net Lift
                      Hairpin net shot Alley Back Alley
                      Follow Through Court Wood Shot
                      Flick Bird Singles footwork base
                      • National and International Governing Bodies of Badminton
                        • BAI - Badminton Assosciation of India
                        • BWF - Badminton World Federation
                      • National and International tournaments
                        • National Tournaments: Indian Open Badminton Championship, Senior National Badminton championship. International Tournaments: World Championship, Thomas Cup

                      Home Science

                      Topic Content
                      1.Home Management
                      • Management of Household Finances: budgeting and saving
                        • Concept and importance of family budget; types of family budgets (surplus, balanced, deficit); factors affecting family budget (composition of the family, life cycle, socio- economic status); steps in preparing a family budget;
                        • An understanding of how budgeting helps in proper planning and judicious utilization of available resources.
                        • Concept and importance of saving.
                      • Space Organisation in the Kitchen:
                        • characteristics and considerations of a good kitchen; layout and planning of kitchens: one-walled, corridor, L-shaped, U-shaped, Island. Modular kitchen.
                        • Characteristics and considerations of a good kitchen: aspect, size, colour, ventilation, walls, flooring, work counters, lighting, storage; Work triangle: meaning and the three centres – preliminary preparation, cooking and washing;
                        • An introduction to the design of kitchen space with respect to placement of work centres for preparation, cooking, washing, service and storage, for the most efficient utilisation of space and saving time and energy; concept of modular kitchens.
                      • Home furnishing.
                        • Meaning of home furnishing; objectives of home furnishing: beauty, expressiveness, functionalism; factors affecting selection of furnishings: curtains, floor coverings (rugs, carpets) and upholstery
                      2.Growth and Development during Middle Childhood
                      • Milestones of development.
                        • Meaning and characteristics of gang age. Growth and development between 6 - 12 years of age with respect to physical, social, emotional, cognitive and language development (meaning and characteristics of each type of development).
                      • Role of the family, peer group and school in middle childhood
                        • Meaning of peer group; role of the family, peer group and school in the social development process of the child.
                      • Common learning difficulties of children; role of family, school and peers.
                        • Meaning of the term learning difficulty; Meaning and symptoms of: dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Role of the family, school and peers in acceptance of and sensitisation towards children with learning difficulties.
                        3. Meal Planning 
                        • Meal Planning for the family
                          • Components of a balanced diet: the five basic food groups (cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, milk and meat products, fruits and vegetables, sugars and fats): sources and their nutritional contribution in the diet.
                          • Explanation of the term meal planning, principles, importance and factors affecting meal planning.
                        • Hygienic handling and storage of food - household methods of preservation of food.
                          • Definition of the term food hygiene; Hygienic handling of food during purchase, storage, preparation and serving. Importance of personal hygiene while handling food. Sanitation and safety in kitchen
                          • Meaning and examples of perishable, semiperishable and non-perishable food items: Storage of perishable, semi-perishable and non-perishable food items commonly available at home; use of convenience foods- advantages and disadvantages
                          • Definition of food preservation; household methods of food preservation: sun drying, freezing, use of salt, sugar, spices, oil and chemical preservatives
                          4. Selection and care of Textiles and Clothing
                          • Selection of Fabric
                            • Factors affecting selection of fabric: age, sex, occupation, season, occasion, fashion, purchasing power
                          • Selection of readymade garments.
                            • Factors affecting selection of readymade garments: fit, colour, workmanship, cost, maintenance.
                          • Laundering of Clothes.
                            • Household methods of laundering of cotton, silk, wool and synthetics (step- wise), use of detergents, soaps, starch, blue and optical brighteners.
                            5. Communication & Extension
                            • Understanding terminology related to development; some developmental schemes and programmes in India.
                              • Meaning of the following terms: Gender discrimination, women’s empowerment, sex ratio, child labour, human trafficking, child abuse, female infanticide/foeticide, morbidity and mortality, carbon footprint, endangered species, population explosion, human capital, poverty line.
                              • A brief understanding, significance and target group of each of the following:
                                - DWCRA (Development of Women Children in Rural Areas);
                                - MNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005);
                                - Ayushman Bharat or Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana;
                                - Ujjwala Yojna;
                                - Pradhanmantri Jan Dhan Yojna.
                              • Communication aids.
                                • Meaning and uses of communication aids; Poster, brochure, pamphlets, puppet shows, street play: effective usage of these communication aids for addressing various social concerns.

                              Leave a Comment

                              Your email address will not be published.

                              Featured Books

                              Regular price Rs. 580
                              Sale price Rs. 580 Regular price
                              Regular price Rs. 580
                              Sale price Rs. 580 Regular price Rs. 580
                              Regular price Rs. 350
                              Sale price Rs. 350 Regular price
                              Regular price Rs. 580
                              Sale price Rs. 580 Regular price Rs. 580
                              Regular price Rs. 672
                              Sale price Rs. 672 Regular price Rs. 672
                              Regular price Rs. 650
                              Sale price Rs. 650 Regular price Rs. 650
                              Regular price Rs. 580
                              Sale price Rs. 580 Regular price
                              Regular price Rs. 400
                              Sale price Rs. 400 Regular price
                              Regular price Rs. 580
                              Sale price Rs. 580 Regular price Rs. 580
                              Regular price Rs. 580
                              Sale price Rs. 580 Regular price Rs. 580